Lone, cattle-grazed tree in limestone pavement
A solitary Midland Hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) tree, heavily grazed by cattle into a standard, on the limestone pavement at Newbiggin Crags, South Cumbria. This well-developed pavement features rounded-edged blocks known as 'rundkarren', with prominent drainage runnels and small rounded dissolution pits known as 'trittkarren'.
This pavement affords far-reaching views towards Ingleborough (the violet-hued peak on the horizon at the far left of this photograph) and the hills around Dent, North Yorkshire.
Limestone pavements were formed during the last Ice Age in the Pleistocene period when moving glaciers scoured bare the surface of the underlying limestone bedrock. The classic pattern of clints (blocks) and grikes (fissures) was produced by the erosive action of overlying soil - such as the moraine deposited by the glacier - and the rainwater that permeated it, enlarging the natural faults in the limestone rock.
(One of a pair of images in this gallery).
Date taken: 24 September 2014.